Monday, March 7, 2011

Gender And Sport In Fascist Italy

The members of the all male Italian team at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic Games were affectionately called 'Mussolini's boys' in the press. The athletes represented a new, more powerful, and virile Italy. Four years later in Berlin it was the successful Italian women athletes who were praised in the press for being the exponents of 'Latin athleticism'. What does this mean about women and sport in Fascist Italy and about the construction of a new athletic femininity and masculinity in this period? The debates that took place about the sports suitable for Italian women render visible the constant process of defining femininity. The construction of masculine athleticism in Fascist Italy was less problematic since modern masculinity was already tied to sport, however it too was not a fixed identity and was particularly influenced at this time by the growing militarism and the Fascist idea of the 'new man'. Sport provides an important focus for the examination of gender issues, because of its public and visible dimension. Moreover, because it provides an arena for easy comparison with other nations, sport was thus a setting for an attempt by the regime to define 'Italian' or 'Latin' characteristics. The figure of the athletic new Italian was emblematic of Fascism itself; fluid, adaptable, ambiguous, and dynamic; faithful, devoted to the Homeland, and strong, and in the case of women, graceful as well. 

The Italian team at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1932 was affectionately referred to by the international press as 'Mussolini's Boys'. (1) This name reflected the widespread approval that Fascist Italy and Mussolini enjoyed at the time, as well as the all-male composition of the team. By the following Olympics much had changed to render this name inappropriate. In 1936 Italy's international position was starkly different; having recently invaded Ethiopia, Italy was facing sanctions from the League of Nations and was moving politically closer to Nazi Germany. (2) In Berlin, Italy presented itself for the first time as an empire, and the Italian press defiantly claimed that the Italian team was competing under a flag of war. Moreover, in Berlin the Italian athletes who were more successful in the main stadium were not 'Mussolini's boys' but his 'girls'. (3) The reception and promotion of these women Olympians and other exemplary sporting figures, notably the accademiste, the students of the Fascist Female Physical Education Academy, reveals the problematic and ongoing process of gender construction in Fascist Italy. Most of the scholarship about sporting women in this period tends to either look at them in isolation from men or as an aside, and thus does not appreciate fully the complexities of the construction of 'Latin athleticism'. (4) While historians have acknowledged the ambiguous place of women in general as well as women athletes in Fascist Italy, they have not adequately teased out the gendered sporting norms for women athletes and for the prominent figure of the donna sportiva. (5) This paper will explore the intrinsic tension in the construction of the athletic woman at a time when virility and militarism, both apparently in contradiction to normative femininity, underscored the figure of the athlete. 

In the twentieth century, sport became a significant aspect of the cultural and political self-definition of modern nations. This was particularly true in the interwar period when sport first became truly international (Riordan 1998: 1). Indeed, Barbara Keys identifies the interwar period as the time when sport became more deeply entwined with notions of nationhood and national power (Keys 2004: 165). Fascist Italy was the first European state to create a centralised and comprehensive sporting program and to use sport explicitly for the purposes of political propaganda. The Fascist regime used sport not only to define Italy but also to define and construct its version of Italians. From the beginning of the modern Italian state, given the vast cultural, linguistic, and economic variances in the peninsula, the creation of Italians was an open challenge. Massimo D'Azeglio, a leading figure of the Risorgimento, is frequently cited as having said at the time of Italy's unification in 1861: 'We have made Italy, now we must make the Italians'. (6) Others after D'Azeglio spoke of the need to create a religion of patriotism and civil consciousness, (7) but Mussolini took up this challenge with unprecedented vigour, determined to nationalise the masses and to project the image of a new dynamic population. Sport was to be the key factor in improving the health and strength of the Italian population, whose perceived lack of virility was a great concern for the regime, and in prospering the image of the 'new Italian'

Saturday, March 5, 2011

La Gazzetta dello Sport

La Gazzetta dello Sport is an Italian newspaper dedicated to coverage of various sports. It was first published on 3 April 1896, allowing it to cover the first modern Olympic Games held in Athens. However, its role extends beyond news reporting and features, to direct involvement in major events, including (since 1909) organization of the Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy) cycling stage race. The newspaper, published on distinctive pink paper, sells over 400,000 copies daily (more on Mondays when readers want to catch up on the weekend's events), and can claim a readership in excess of three million. 

A sports magazine, Sportweek, is sold with the newspaper on Saturdays. Although a wide range of sports are covered in the newspaper, football is given by far the majority of the coverage. With some 24-28 pages out of 40 devoted to the sport on a daily basis, much of the journalism is speculative and sensationalist rather than the pure reporting of matches. However, the paper also has a good record for campaigning journalism, and played a significant part in exposing the 2006 Serie A scandal that rocked Italian football, and led to the relegation of Juventus and points penalties for other leading clubs. The largest and best supported teams in Italy, and especially the Milan teams of A.C. Milan and Internazionale, dominate the coverage. This focus is partly because it is published in Milan. Other sports papers in Italy do the same with teams from their own city, for example TuttosportTorino-based sides and Il Corriere dello Sport has Rome-based teams at the fore. has larger coverage of

Tuesday, March 1, 2011

Mou Is The Best But He Needs To Learn Good Manners

The countdown is over. Tomorrow the Gazzetta dello Sport's new 16-page insert, Extra Time, will be published for the first time. It's free, comes out with the Tuesday edition of the paper and deals with foreign championships including surveys, reports, results, league tables, features and new faces, as well as exclusive interviews. We get the ball rolling with Mario Balotelli, who tells us of his life under the blue sky of Manchester.

One for all — SuperMario, as usual, shocks us with heavy comments. For example? “Mourinho is the best coach in the world, but as a man he still has some way to go, as far as good manners and respect are concerned”. And that's not all: his reply to Berlusconi when he defined Cassano as the most talented Italian player: “Either Berlusconi is wrong or he doesn't know Balotelli well”. Mario has no doubts: the best player in Serie A is Ibra (“excellent, out of this world”), while the best Italian player is Giovinco. The Ballon d'Or? Messi? No way: "It should have gone to Sneijder”.

mancini? number 1
— Balotelli also talks about Roberto Mancini: "He's the most important manager I have had". Then the revelation: "He's going to be the best in the world soon". But it isn't over yet: "As a man he's 10km ahead of Mourinho”. He talks about his team-mates at City, too: “Johnson has great technique and Adebayor is the most fun. Vieira and Kolarov helped me out a lot when I arrived”. Then Mario makes an about turn and goes on to discuss the "scudetto". “Instinctively, I'd say AC Milan. If I think about it a bit, I'd say: but Inter gave me so much. If I think again, I decide: I hope Napoli win. I'd love to play alongside Cavani”. As regards the gossip which surrounds him, he brushes it of as “rubbish". And goes on: English football is well ahead in the grounds but so far behind in the papers. As for Sophie, I can only say that I have only seen her once and she began bombarding me with messages, but she has a friend who is much more interesting”.

— Finally we feel obliged to let you know that Mario Balotelli supports Extra Time's charity campaign and that he has donated his fee for this interview to the ’ong Cuey Machar Secondary School Foundation, which will go towards building a school in Southern Sudan.

Saturday, February 26, 2011

Champions League Press Reaction

Reality bites. Having lost 1-0 in the first leg of their last-16 encounter to Tottenham Hotspur in painfully limp fashion, Milan might have expected to be on the receiving end of a ruthless evisceration from the Italian press. And yet rather than an air of recrimination, the mood is more one of resignation after a defeat that leaves Milan teetering on the brink of Champions League elimination. The headline on the front page of Gazzetta dello Sport reads "Cr-OUCH that hurt!"

Inside there is recognition of Milan's failings, acknowledgement of their reduced standing in the European game, and perhaps the realisation that Serie A is no longer the same league that was so dominant during the 90s. "The suspicion that this Milan built on holding midfielders could do well in the league but much less so in Europe, where quality of play matters, has taken body. Every time Milan won the ball it was as if they were trying to put a raft into the sea, only to see it carried back to shore by the waves," writes Luigi Garlando, the metaphors coming thick and fast, rather unlike Milan. Even as they pushed in the second half "there was the suspicion that the English cobra, trapped inside the chest, was preparing a fatal bite," he continues.

All is not lost, of course, with a second leg still to come, but Garlando points out that if Milan are to prosper at White Hart Lane, their star man, Zlatan Ibrahimovic, must perform much better than he managed last night. "Ibrahimovic will need to do more in London or else they shall continue to say that in Europe his brother plays instead," he says, 'they' perhaps referring to English journalists who have long doubted Ibrahimovic's ability to wreak havoc in the Champions League.

In Il Giornale, Franco Ordine offers a slightly disparaging view of Aaron Lennon's burst which set up Peter Crouch's winning goal, instead focusing on Milan's failings. "One half in which to suffer and one in which to hope before succumbing to a banal and elementary counterattack," he says. "It's true that [Milan] had a makeshift midfield but perhaps that is not enough to explain away the submission of the first half." Everywhere the outlook is resolutely bleak. "Two months on, the verdict seems to be the same as that which came out of the group stages: Milan are not at the level of the elite of European football," admits Gazzetta's Marco Pasotto.

On the website of La Repubblica, there was perhaps a hint of Milan's complacency, Fabrizio Bocca suggesting that a side of their calibre should not be losing to Tottenham. "If you want to suggest you can win the Champions League, you can't be frightened of Tottenham," he claims. "For years we have struggled against the English and we are maybe even beginning to develop a certain inferiority complex."

The elephant in the room was of course Gennaro Gattuso's altercation with Joe Jordan after the final whistle. Gattuso has not been pilloried nearly so severely in Italy this morning as in England, although Jordan, who played for Milan, was not apportioned any blame for the incident after the final whistle. Indeed in Gazzetta, Alessandra Bocci praises the battling qualities of Milan's assistant manager, while questioning the mental state of Gattuso and even his commitment. A picture developed: Jordan the fighter, Gattuso the ranter.

"[Joe Jordan] played for Milan during a period that was certainly a lot darker than that which Gattuso has lived through in red and black, and like the latter he was a battler," points out Bocci. "He lost two teeth battling. Rino has not lost any teeth, but he has lost his calm – and rather too often.

"That yesterday's game was one of fraught nerves for him was evident from the start. He was trying to be the boss, and got even more heated than usual – recovering possession for his team-mates and, as usual, never being afraid to stick a boot in. But it was the other stuff that was incomprehensible, impossible to explain if not through the frustration that must have soaked through to the bones of the Rossoneri just like the rain which made Milan just like London. And Rino Gattuso won't be in London [for the return leg]."

Whether his team-mates will turn up remains to be seen, but the worry for Milan is that Tottenham were so comfortable that they did not even miss "that demon" Gareth Bale, as Garlando labels him. Already lacking belief that Milan can overcome their first-leg deficit, the prospect of Bale's return for the second leg makes the task appear all but impossible. "Milan will need to attack with everything they have in London knowing that, if they lose the ball, that demon Gareth Bale will bring it straight back at them," said Garlando. "Tottenham deservedly conquered San Siro even without their young superstar."

Special Limited Offer On Gazzetta Dello Sport App For BlackBerry

People familiar with the dual language Italian and English sports media will recognize the name Gazzetta dello Sport. For many people, this name is synonymous with being the one-stop source of information for all things related to sports in general and particularly the football news that they find necessary for daily life. Football (soccer) is the favourite sport of the world and Gazzetta dello Sport app for BlackBerry is where you can get your information about what is going on with this sport.

All of the information that you need to stay informed on current events
You can start your experience with Gazzetta dello Sport BlackBerry app by taking a look at the breaking news section of the app. This section will let you know at a glance what the most important news stories are at the moment so that you can always stay relatively well informed just by taking a look at this one section of the BlackBerry application.

If you decide that you’d like to go a little deeper, you can get all kinds of extra information as well. You can look at all of the scores from the Serie A and B leagues in Italy. Additionally, you can get information on the Premier League in England as well as important football leagues all over Europe. Countries like Germany and France are readily represented in terms of the news stories that you can get on this BlackBerry app.

Make this app your own
In addition to just being an app about sporting information, Gazzetta dello Sport BlackBerry application will give you the chance to customize a few features of your experience. You can put your favorite team from Serie A or B onto the display and get customized information based on the selections that you make. You can even save keyword searches to get the news that you want delivered right to your handheld BlackBerry device. Finally, you can pick and choose articles to save offline so that you can read them later on when you might not have access to an internet connection.

Final Score
Gazzetta dello Sport app for BlackBerry is a sweet online application that will give you access to a lot of useful information. By the same token, we wish that this app had something a bit more than just news and views as this is the 21st century. Overall though, Gazzetta dello Sport BlackBerry app is still a very good BlackBerry sports application with a final score of 7 out of 10.

FC Barcelona

Klub yang mempunyai motto 'El Barca Es Mas Que Un Club' Barcelona bukan hanya sekedar klub, didirikan oleh 12 orang yang dipimpin Joan Gamper pada tanggal 29 Nopember 1899 di Katalonia.

Barcelona merupakan cerminan sikap politik sayap kiri Spanyol, sikap kaum tertindas, sebuah bangsa (Katalonia) yang hanya akan menjadi bagian dari sebuah negara.

Melalui Barcelona inilah orang Katalonia ingin menunjukkan kelebihan mereka dari penjajah Spanyol. Terutama jika klub ini berhadapan dengan Real Madrid, yang sejak tahun 1930-an jamannya Jendral Franco merupakan klub favorit pemerintah Spanyol, klub ini mempunyai semboyan 'Boleh kalah dengan klub lain, asal tidak dengan Real Madrid'.

Manuel Vazquez Montalban, seorang penulis terkenal dari Spanyol menyebutkan, Barcelona sebagai senjata pamungkas bagi sebuah bangsa tanpa negara.

Karena misi yang dianggap suci oleh orang Katalonia itulah, Barcelona selalu menjaga kemurnian tujuan klub. Mereka tidak mau disamakan dengan klub lain, dan tidak mau tunduk dengan nilai-nilai komersial. Karena itulah sampai sekarang Barcelona merupakan satu-satunya klub yang tidak mengijinkan kostumnya dipasangi iklan.

Barcelona merupakan satu-satunya klub di Eropa yang presidennya dipilih oleh pemegang tiket musiman (pendukung paling murni), bukan pula oleh dewan direktur dan bukan pemegang modal. Calon Presiden klub berdebat di televisi, berkampanye mengajukan program layaknya pemilihan Presiden sebuah negara.

Klub ini dijuluki 'Barca' dan 'Los Azulgranas' karena berkostum warna biru dan merah tua, yang konon warna biru merah secara sengaja diambil dari bendera Prancis sebagai bentuk perlawanan terhadap pemerintahan Spanyol di Madrid.

Klub ini juga pernah dihuni pemain-pemain kelas dunia seperti: Johan Cruyff, Maradona, Ronald Koeman, Gary Lineker, Rivaldo, Luis Figo dan juga sang fenomenal Ronaldo.


Nama lengkap : Barcelona Foot Ball Club
Julukan : Barca, Los Azulgranas
Berdiri : 29 Nopember 1899
Stadion : Nou Camp, Barcelona-Spanyol
Kapasitas : 98.600 penonton
Kostum : Garis-garis Merah Biru-Biru (Kandang), Oranye-Hitam (Tandang)
Presiden : Joan Laporta Estruch
Pelatih : Josep Guardiola

La Gazetta dello Sport

Read here our review on La Gazetta dello Sport.
The love for sports is universal. That is why nations continuously enjoy exciting Sunday nights or full-packed weeknights watching the live telecast of football, baseball or basketball games.

However, not being actually in the game misses out a lot of information. And getting all the insider’s information, scoops and player interviews are exactly what the La Gazzetta dello Sport provides.

journalistic, speculative and sensationalist approaches

All its 40-paged daily circulation is dedicated in combining journalistic, speculative and sensationalist approaches to presenting the hottest buzz on what’s happening on Italian sports. Although the newspaper was involved in some controversies such as the 2006 Series A Scandal in Italian football and the relegation of Juventus, the newspaper manages to maintain objectivity on their features on sports events, particularly football.

La Gazetta dello Sport
presents balanced and exciting news

Since local newspapers usually patronize the local teams and players on their papers, what’s goof about La Gazzetta dello Sport is that it presents balanced and exciting news and offers equal exposure for the nation’s great athletes. Today, the newspaper managed to open up its daily issues online. Headed by its editor-in-chief, Carlo Verdelli, the newspaper has established a website that provides the world with Italian sports news.

printed on distinctive light pink

The first copies of La Gazzetta dello Sport was released in April 3, 1896, covering the first modern Olympics that was held in Athens, Greece. Today, years of running the sports news business enabled the newspaper to extend its involvement in a number of Italy’s biggest and most successful organizations of athletes such as the Giro d’Italia.

What’s interesting about this broadsheet is that it is printed on distinctive light pink paper. This detail may also be one of the factors why it continuously sells an average of 400,000 copies on its daily circulation. The numbers go right up especially on Mondays (436,563- ADS Figures as of 2006), catching up the features on the weekend’s events.

an authority when it comes to Italian sports news

The newspaper is very competitive when it comes to readerships, even with weekly sports magazine periodicals as well as in monthly editions of foreign sports magazines. As of 2006 ADS figures, La Gazzetta dello Sport has tallied an outstanding 3,603,000 readership making it an authority when it comes to Italian sports news and information.

Thanks to its high technical level of content, the newspaper has become a fundamental part of the popularity of most teams as well as individual athletes in great Italian sports. Its editorial coverage has reached many interesting topics which not only surround sports. The newspapers commitment to constantly making itself better has won the confidence of the younger audiences, reaching wider range of readerships. in english

More people are expected to be tapped by the magazine’s fine reporters and journalists since has been launched. In English language, the hottest news in the Italian La Gazzetta dello Sport can now earn an international audience. Featuring exciting contents about sports topics, 24-hour sports coverage as well as interesting Italian sports articles, pools, videos and press releases can easily and freely be accessed online.